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Heavy Metals Contaminants In The Eggs And Temperatures Of Nesting Beaches Of Sea Turtles In Kaimana, West Papua, Indonesia1600217206
Description: Biodiversitas 21: 4582-4590. Etna Bay and Venu Island in Kaimana, West Papua, Indonesia are two of many areas that sea turtles use during the nesting season. Here, we report data on heavy metals contaminants from a sample of eggs of green (Chelonia mydas) and hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) turtles collected from a subset of two nests during the 2016 nesting season at Venu Island, Kaimana, West Papua, Indonesia. Three heavy metals contaminants (i.e. mercury, cadmium, arsenic) found in eggs exceeded the established safety limits for human consumption.

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Recognizing Peripheral Ecosystems In Marine Protected Areas: A Case Study Of Golden Jellyfish Lakes in Raja Ampat, Indonesia1600215832
Author(s): Diede L. Maas, Agustin Capriati, Awaludinnoer Ahmad, Mark V. Erdmann, Machiel Lamers, Christiaan A. de Leeuw, Luca Prins, Purwanto, Amanda P. Putri, Ricardo F. Tapilatu, Leontine E. Becking
Description: Peripheral marine ecosystems can harbor endemic diversity and attract tourism attention, yet are generally not included in conservation management plans due to their remoteness or inland positioning. A case study in Raja Ampat of seven landlocked marine lakes containing golden jellyfish (Mastigias spp.) was conducted to address the lack of fundamental insights into evolutionary, ecological and social contexts of these ecosystems. An interdisciplinary approach was taken towards identifying the jellyfish lakes as distinct management units in order to incorporate them into existing Marine Protected Areas. Mastigias papua populations showed strong genetic (ϕST: 0.30–0.86) and morphological (F = 28.62, p-value = 0.001) structure among lakes, with putative new subspecies. Risks arising from rapid increase in tourism to Raja Ampat (30-fold since 2007) warrant restrictions on jellyfish lake use. Recommendations are provided for adaptive management and science-based conservation policies for jellyfish lakes across Indonesia.

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Center of Excellence for Sustainable Development Newsletter January-March 20201591918150
Author(s): Fitryanti Pakiding
Description: Perekrutan dan Pelatihan bagi Calon Pendamping Masyarakat Periode Februari - Juli 2020 di Distrik Abun, Kabupaten Tambrauw - Papua Barat
Lokakarya Penilaian Efektivitas Pengelolaan Kawasan Konservasi Perairan, Pesisir dan Pulau-Pulau Kecil (E-KkP3k) di Wilayah Perairan Bentang Laut Kepala Burung, Papua
Lokakarya Para Pihak dalam Pengembangan Kabupaten Konservasi dan Masyarakat Adat di Tambrauw, Papua Barat
Dive Master untuk Mutu Pengambilan Data Ekologi
Program Capacity Building bersama Para Mitra: Pembelajaran Selama Sepuluh Tahun Monitoring Ekologi dan Sosial di BLKB
Penyebarluasan Informasi Terkait Isu-isu Konservasi: Pemutaran Film Dokumenter dengan Tema Lingkungan
Conservation Goes To School Nabire & Biak
Penyebarluasan Informasi Terkait Isu-isu Konservasi: Berbagi Isu Konservasi Melalui Talk show di Nabire dan Biak
Monitoring dan Evaluasi Lapang Periode Maret 2020: Program Pemberdayaan Masyarakat di Distrik Abun
Audit Eksternal Sebagai Bagian Pertanggungjawaban dalam Program BAF Siklus 2 Tahun 2019
Cerita lapangan dari Pantai Jeen Syuab Pada Musim Peneluran Oktober 2019 - Maret 2020
Penyebaran Informasi terkait Isu-isu Konservasi Kepada Masyarakat Umum melalui Pameran HUT Pekabaran Injil ke-165 di Manokwari
Diseminasi Hasil Survei Sosial Ekonomi dan Ekologi di Kabupaten Nabire
Diseminasi Hasil Survei Ekologi dan Sosial Ekonomi
di Jejaring Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Raja Ampat Kepada Pemerintah Daerah Kabupaten Raja Ampat
Work From Home (WFH):
Sebuah Adaptasi Kerja di Tengah Pandemi COVID-19
Seberapa Penting Data

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Walking, swimming or hitching a ride? Phylogenetics and biogeography of the walking shark genus Hemiscyllium1579844447
Author(s): Bird's Head Seascape
Tags: epaulette shark, eastern Indonesia, Australia, New Guinea, radiation, Sahul region.
Description: It can be challenging to identify the forces that drive speciation in marine environments for organisms that are capable of widespread dispersal because their contemporary distributions often belie the historical processes that were responsible for their initial diversification. In this contribution we explore the likely sequence of events responsible for the radiation of walking sharks in the genus Hemiscyllium using a dated molecular phylogeny. The nine currently recognised species in the genus consist of small, benthic sharks that are restricted to the Indo-Australian Archipelago and show limited dispersal at both juvenile and adult stages. We discuss how major tectonic changes, sea level fluctuations and the unique biology of the species may have influenced speciation in the group, as well as the current distribution of the genus and each of its constituent species. Phylogeographic analysis of the genus combined with biogeographic reconstruction of the region shows a recent radiation during the Miocene and Pliocene, and supports a combination of vicariance and founder modes of speciation mediated by major tectonic, geological and oceanographic historical processes.

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(Supplementary material) Walking, swimming or hitching a ride? Phylogenetics and biogeography of the walking shark genus Hemiscyllium1579844354
Author(s): Bird's Head Seascape
Description: Supplementary material
Walking, swimming or hitching a ride? Phylogenetics and biogeography of the walking shark genus Hemiscyllium

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2016 State Of Seascape Bird's Head Seascape Marine Protected Area Network1576526898
Author(s): Bird's Head Seascape
Description: A comprehensive overview of the State of the Bird's Head Seascape Marine Protected Area Network. Complied in 2016.
The Bird’s Head Seascape (BHS) of West Papua, Indonesia, is the global epicenter of marine biodiversity and a priority for conservation. Over the past decade, marine conservation efforts, led by the Indonesia government in partnership with civil society and local communities, have brought more than 3.6 million hectares under protection through the establishment and management of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in the Seascape.

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Sueviota Minersorum, a new species of sponge-dwelling goby (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from Misool, Raja Ampat Islands, Indonesia1572376767
Author(s): David W. Greenfield, Mark V. Erdmann, Ilham Vermandra Utama
Tags: taxonomy, coral reef fishes, ichthyology, systematics, Indo-Pacific Ocean, sponge, dwarfgoby, Eviota
Description: A new gobiid species, Sueviota minersorum, is described from 4 specimens, 17.9–23.2 mm SL, collected from inside Theonella tube sponges at 20–22 m depth. The new species has a dorsal/anal-fin ray count of 9/8 and 17 or 18 pectoral-fin rays, all unbranched, and 27 or 28 lateral scales. It furthermore has a basal membrane fully joining the two branched fifth pelvic-fin rays, a character shared with 4 congeners: Sueviota bryozophila, S. lachneri, S. larsonae, and S. tubicola. Sueviota minersorum is most similar to S. lachneri, but differs in having a stocky body with a deep caudal peduncle, not tapering from the mid-body, and in color patterns. It differs from S. bryozophila in having all pelvic-fin rays branched (vs. unbranched), having a single AITO pore (vs. paired AITO pores), PITO and NA pores (vs. absent), and in color patterns. It differs from S. larsonae and S. tubicola by the absence of a frenum (vs. present) and in color patterns.

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Social preferences and network structure in a population of reef manta rays1572373528
Author(s): Robert J. Y. Perryman & Stephanie K. Venables & Ricardo F. Tapilatu & Andrea D. Marshall & Culum Brown & Daniel W. Franks
Description: Understanding how individual behavior shapes the structure and ecology of populations is key to species conservation and management. Like many elasmobranchs, manta rays are highly mobile and wide-ranging species threatened by anthropogenic impacts. In shallow water environments, these pelagic rays often form groups and perform several apparently socially mediated behaviors. Group structures may result from active choices of individual rays to interact or passive processes. Social behavior is known to affect spatial ecology in other elasmobranchs, but this is the first study providing quantitative evidence for structured social relationships in manta rays. To construct social networks, we collected data from more than 500 groups of reef manta rays (Mobula alfredi) over 5 years in the Raja Ampat Regency of West Papua. We used generalized affiliation indices to isolate social preferences from non-social associations, the first study on elasmobranchs to use this method. Longer lasting social preferences were detected mostly between female rays. We detected assortment of social relations by phenotype and variation in social strategies, with the overall social network divided into two main communities. Overall network structure was characteristic of a dynamic fission-fusion society, with differentiated relationships linked to strong fidelity to cleaning station sites. Our results suggest that fine-scale conservation measures will be useful in protecting social groups of M. alfredi in their natural habitats and that a more complete understanding of the social nature of manta rays will help predict population responses to anthropogenic pressures, such as increasing disturbance from dive tourism.

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BAF-Monthly Update Aug 2019 (EN)1567097026
Author(s): Blue Abadi Fund
Description: Blue Abadi Fund Update-August 2019

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Förderer and Langer Distributed under Creative Commons CC-BY 4.0 OPEN ACCESS Five new species and one new genus of recent miliolid foraminifera from Raja Ampat (West Papua, Indonesia)1566603033
Author(s): Meena Förderer and Martin R. Langer
Description: Raja Ampat is an archipelago of about 1,500 small islands located northwest off the
Bird's Head Peninsula of Indonesia's West Papua province. It is part of the Coral
Triangle, a region recognized as the ``epicenter'' of tropical marine biodiversity. In
the course of a large-scale survey on shallow benthic foraminifera we have discovered
one new genus and five new species of recent miliolid benthic foraminifera from
the highly diverse reefal and nearshore environments.

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A time for Locally Driven Development In Papua And West Papua1560801509
Author(s): Mochamad Indrawan, Agus Sumule, Arief Wijaya, Noak Kapisa, Frans Wanggai, Mubariq Ahmad, Benja V. Mambai & Charlie D. Heatubun
Description: The vast bio-cultural diversity of Tanah Papua (Land of Papua) are important resources for local economic development, especially where their sustainable use incorporates affirmative action to ensure that indigenous communities capture the resulting benefits. Papuan stakeholders already have their own detailed plans, and there are some success stories to instill confidence in the abilities of the indigenous
peoples of Papua to lead their own development. Multi-stakeholder approaches are known to work well, and in this case, locally driven initiatives are also known to be promising. This viewpoint suggests the
need for a balance between inclusive participation in multi-stakeholder programs and the enhancement of locally driven initiatives.

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Author(s): Edy Setyawan1,2,3,*, Abraham B. Sianipar4, Mark V. Erdmann5, Andrew M. Fischer1, James A. Haddy1, Calvin S. Beale6, Sarah A. Lewis2,3,6, Ronald Mambrasar4
Description: Though extremely valuable to the local marine tourism industry, there is a dearth of published information
on the ecology and population dynamics of reef manta rays (Mobula alfredi) in Raja Ampat, West Papua, Indonesia. Knowledge of the movement ecology in particular of this large and scattered population is urgently needed to better manage the rapidly expanding manta-focused tourism. Here we report the results of an initial passive acoustic telemetry study designed to provide local managers with the first detailed knowledge of the site use and movement patterns of reef mantas in northern Raja Ampat.

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West Papua Declared Conservation Province1502738880
Author(s): Ketut Sarjana Putra
Tags: conservation, West Papua, development
Description: West Papua has been declared a conservation province, setting a pathway for sustainable development

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Analysis of management effectiveness of Local Marine Conservation Area (KKLD) Mayalibit Bay, Raja Ampat Regency, West Papua Province1502738336
Author(s): Handayani Handayani, Sutrisno Anggoro, Boedi Hendrarto, Abdul Kohar
Tags: MPA, Raja Ampat MPA Network
Description: The establishment of Marine Conservation Area (KKL) is not necessarily becoming desired
protection and conservation efforts. Therefore, questions raise whether the KKL management has been
performed effectively in order to obtain sustainable outcomes as well as to improve community socioeconomic status. This research aimed to analyze the effectiveness of the management of the Local
Marine Conservation Area (KKLD) Mayalibit Bay in Raja Ampat Regency, Indonesia.

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Generating actionable data for evidence-based conservation: The global center of marine biodiversity as a case study1502737999
Author(s): Helen E. Fox,Megan D. Barnes,Gabby N. Ahmadia, Grace Kao, Louise Glew, Kelly Haisfield, Nur Ismu Hidayat, Christine L. Huffardf, Laure Katz, Sangeeta Mangubhai, Purwanto
Description: Sufficiently rigorous monitoring and evaluation can assess the effectiveness of management actions to conserve natural resources. However, costs of monitoring can be high in relation to program budgets, so it is critical to design monitoring efforts to ensure a high return on investment. To assess the relative contribution of different monitoring strategies to yield information for management decisions, we examine the evolution of a multi-year monitoring program across several MPAs in West Papua, Indonesia.

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Benefits of Sasi for Conservation of Marine Resources in Raja Ampat, Papua1502734958
Author(s): Paulus Boli, Fredinan Yulianda, Ario Damar, Dedi Soedharma, Rilus Kinseng
Tags: Raja Ampat, conservation, Sasi
Description: Residents of Raja Ampat, Papua, have been practicing sasi for generations to manage local marine resources. Recognizing its importance for marine resource conservation, efforts have been made to integrate sasi into current conservation management approach. This study was carried out with 3 objectives: (1) to define and elaborate sasi; (2) to examine the benefits of sasi for conservation of marine resources; and (3) to evaluate the change of sasi in the context of conservation.

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Status of sea turtle populations and its conservation at Bird’s Head Seascape, Western Papua, Indonesia1499803740
Author(s): Ricardo Tapilatu, Hengki Wona, Petrus Batubara
Description: Bird’s Head Seascape region in the northwest of Papua contains the world’s highest marine biodiversity. The area is a unique site which contains a full range of marine and coastal habitats that are important for the breeding, foraging and migration of several species of sea turtles. This survey aimed to characterize critical habitats that are in use by sea turtles across Yapen, Wondama, Manokwari and Kaimana at Bird’s Head Seascape and to assess existing and potential threats to both habitats and population.

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Spatial Ecology And Conservation Of Manta Birostris1492627955
Author(s): J. D. Stewart, C.S. Beale, D. Fernando, A. b. Sianipar, R. S. Burton, B. X. Semmens, C. Aburto-Oropeza
Description: Information on the movements and population connectivity of the oceanic manta ray (Manta birostris) is scarce. The species has been anecdotally classified as a highlymigratory species based on the pelagic habitats it often occupies, and migratory behavior exhibited by similar species. As a result, in the absence of ecological data, population declines in oceanic manta have been addressed primarily with international-scale management and conservation efforts. Using a combination of satellite telemetry, stable isotope and genetic analyses we demonstrate that, contrary to previous assumptions, the species appears to exhibit restricted movements and fine scale population structure.

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Status of sea turtle populations and conservation in the BHS1483997817
Author(s): Ricardo Tapilatu, Hengki Wona, Petrus Batubara
Description: Bird’s Head Seascape region in the northwest of Papua contains the world’s highest marine biodiversity. The area is a unique site which contains a full range of marine and coastal habitats that are important for the breeding, foraging and migration of several species of sea turtles. This survey aimed to characterize critical habitats that are in use by sea turtles across Yapen, Wondama, Manokwari and Kaimana at Bird’s Head Seascape and to assess existing and potential threats to both habitats and population.

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Explicitly incorporating socioeconomic criteria and data into marine protected area zoning1447106434
Author(s): Sangeeta Mangubhai, Joanne R. Wilson , Lukas Rumetna, Yohanes Maturbongs, Purwanto
Tags: Raja Ampat, Indonesia, Coral Triangle, conservation planning, Tenure, Zonation, Marine spatial planning
Description: Addressing community needs or aspirations is critical for the success of marine protected areas (MPAs). However MPA design based on the results of systematic conservation planning tools alone does not fully represent important information on socioeconomic factors. This is because of the reliance of conservation planning tools on spatial data which is better suited to ecological rather than socioeconomic factors which are predominantly non-spatial. We present a case study from Raja Ampat in Indonesia, to
demonstrate how we developed MPA zoning plans for six multiple use MPAs that encompass more than 1 million ha of the world's most diverse coral reef ecosystems.

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Nest temperatures of the Piai and Sayang Islands green turtle (Chelonia mydas) rookeries, Raja Ampat Papua, Indonesia: Implications for hatchling sex ratios1428425525
Tags: Raja Ampat, conservation, Biodiversity, Sayang, turtles, Piai, Chelonia mydas, hatching success, sex determination
Description: This study is the first comprehensive assessment of sex ratios for green sea turtles in Raja Ampat and represents the initiation of a long- term database that can be used at a local level to develop strategies that could potentially offset the impact of long-term climate change on the western Pacific green sea turtle.

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Author(s): Dian Oktaviani
Tags: Raja Ampat, Rastrelliger kanagurta, Teluk Mayalibit, fisheries management, Ethnozoology
Description: Telah dilakukan penelitian etnozoologi dan biologi reproduksi ikan lema, Rastrelliger kanagurta (Cuvier, 1816) yang dilakukan selama satu tahun (Maret
2011--Februari 2012) di Teluk Mayalibit Kabupaten Raja Ampat, Papua Barat. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mendapatkan rekomendasi bagi peningkatan
pengelolaan perikanan lokal yang penting di Teluk Mayalibit.

7.5 MiB
The Seascapes Approach1401911154
Author(s): Sebastian Troeng; Peter Bryant; Guilherme Dutra; Mark Erdmann; Ginny Farmer; Scott Henderson; Keith Lawrence; Frazer McGilvray; Jonas Rupp; Romeo Trono
Tags: Bird's Head Seascape, Seascapes, large scale marine conservation
Description: By 2000 it was clear that some of the most outstanding marine regions in the world were under siege, facing rapid degradation and ecosystem collapse. Just as clear was the fact that old approaches were not going to save them. Conservation International developed the Seascapes Approach to stem the decline in ocean health in some of the most outstanding marine regions of the world, and to demonstrate that transforming the management of large ocean areas to benefit people and ecosystems is possible.

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Atlas Sumberdaya Pesisir Kabupaten Raja Ampat1401910908
Author(s): Konsorsium Atlas Sumberdaya Pesisir Kabupaten Raja Ampat
Tags: Raja Ampat, Atlas, Sumberdaya Alam, natural resources
Description: Kepulauan Raja Ampat terletak di jantung pusat segitiga karang dunia (Coral Triangle) dan merupakan pusat keanekaragaman hayati laut tropis terkaya di dunia saat ini. Kepulauan ini berada di bagian paling barat pulau induk Papua, Indonesia, membentang di area seluas kurang lebih 4,6 juta hektar. Raja Ampat memiliki kekayaan dan keunikan spesies yang tinggi dengan ditemukannya 1.104 jenis ikan, 699 jenis moluska (hewan lunak) dan 537 jenis hewan karang.

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Achieving Fisheries and Conservation Objectives within Marine Protected Areas: Zoning the Raja Ampat Network1401910538
Author(s): Vera Agostini; Hedley Grantham; Joanne Wilson; Sangeeta Mangubhai; Chris Rotinsulu; Nur Hidayat; Andreas Muljadi; Mujahir; Meity Mongdong; Arief Darmawan; Lukas Rumetna; Mark Erdmann; Hugh Possingham
Tags: Raja Ampat, MPA Network, conservation planning, zoning, MARXAN
Description: Raja Ampat is a national and global priority for conservation as it contains the world’s most diverse coral reefs and critical habitats for globally threatened marine species, and is a cetacean migratory corridor. As a result local governments in this region are facing difficult decisions in their attempt to balance sustainable development with conservation of globally significant marine diversity. This report describes a process conducted to support the development of zoning plans for Raja Ampat’s MPA network. Activities undertaken included developing a spatial database on species, habitats and human uses; engaging stakeholders through a series of meeting and workshop; applying state of the art conservation planning tools to synthesize information and examine trade-offs.

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Emerging Threats And Challenges To Bird's Head Seascape1394664582
Author(s): Sangeeta Mangubhai; Mark Erdmann; Joanne Wilson; Christine Huffard; Ferdiel Ballamu;
Tags: Bird's Head Seascape, conservation, Biodiversity, threats
Description: The Bird’s Head Seascape located in eastern Indonesia is the global epicenter of tropical shallow water marine biodiversity with over 600 species of corals and 1,638 species of coral reef fishes. The Seascape also includes critical habitats for globally threatened marine species, including sea turtles and cetaceans. Since 2001, the region has undergone rapid development in fisheries, oil and gas extraction, mining and logging. The expansion of these sectors, combined with illegal activities and poorly planned coastal development, is accelerating deterioration of coastal and marine environments. At the same time, regency governments have expanded their marine protected area networks to cover 3,594,702 ha of islands and coastal waters. Low population numbers, relatively healthy natural resources and a strong tenure system in eastern Indonesia provide an opportunity for government and local communities to collaboratively manage their resources sustainably to ensure long-term food security, while meeting their development aspirations.

3.6 MiB
Prioritas Geografi Keanekaragaman Hayati Laut Untuk Pengembangan Kawasan Konservasi Perairan Indonesia1394664134
Author(s): Christine Huffard; Mark Erdmann; Tiene Gunawan
Tags: Indonesia, kawasan konservasi, Prioritas geografi, keanekaragaman hayati, perairan
Description: Buku “Prioritas Geografi Keanekaragaman Hayati Laut untuk Pengembangan Kawasan Konservasi Perairan di Indonesia” merupakan kajian untuk prioritas konservasi laut komprehensif yang pertama sejak diterbitkannya “Indonesia Marine Conservation Data Atlas,” oleh IUCN dan WWF untuk Direktorat Jenderal Perlindungan Hutan dan Pelestarian Alam di tahun 1984. Dengan komitmen Indonesia terhadap Coral Triangle Initiative and dalam mencapai target kawasan konservasi perairan seluas 20 juta hektar di tahun 2020, kami ditugaskan untuk melaksanakan strategi prioritisasi wilayah yang berbasis ilmiah yang komprehensif sebagai arahan upaya tersebut. Kegiatan prioritisasi dalam
dokumen ini dirancang untuk memenuhi keperluan ini.

4.5 MiB
Geographic Priorities For Marine Biodiversity Conservation In Indonesia1394663814
Author(s): C.L. Huffard, Mark V. Erdmann, Tiene Gunawan
Tags: Bird's Head Seascape, Indonesia, Geographic Priorities, MPA networks, biodiversity conservation
Description: “Geographic priorities for marine biodiversity conservation in Indonesia” represents the first comprehensive review of Indonesia’s marine conservation priorities since 1984’s landmark “Indonesia Marine Conservation Data Atlas,” produced for the Indonesian Department of Nature Conservation by IUCN and WWF. With Indonesia’s international commitment to both the Coral Triangle Initiative and achieving a goal of 20 million hectares of marine protected areas by 2020, we were tasked to provide a scientifically comprehensive geographic prioritization strategy to guide these efforts. The prioritization exercise reported in this document was designed to fulfill this request.

4.5 MiB
Ecosystem-Based Management In The Birds Head Seascape1394663445
Author(s): Christine Huffard; Joanne Wilson; Creusa Hitipeuw; Chris Rotinsulu; Sangeeta Mangubhai
Tags: Bird's Head Seascape, MPA, Fisheries, Ecosystem Based Management, oceanography
Description: Although West Papua is rich in natural resources, over 40% of people living there fall below the poverty line. Many local residents rely on coastal resources, particularly
fisheries for income and food security. Although ecosystems here are relatively healthy compared to many other areas of Southeast Asia, they are no longer pristine and the
fishery stocks of some areas are severely depleted. Furthermore, unsustainable exploitation of natural resources, poor development practices, and rapid human population
growth threaten these ecosystems and the local communities who depend on them...
Ecosystem-based management (EBM) aims to maintain healthy, productive, and resilient environments that provide humans with the ecosystem services they need today and in the future.

12.6 MiB
Evidence Of Fisheries Depletions And Shifting Baselines In Eastern Indonesia1393962843
Author(s): Cameron Ainsworth; Tony Pitcher; Christovel Rotinsulu
Tags: Raja Ampat, Fisheries, shifting baseline
Description: We analyzed fisher interview data collected in the Raja Ampat archipelago of Eastern Indonesia to demonstrate a perceived decline in the abundance of living marine resources targeted by commercial and artisanal fisheries. The decline appeared ubiquitous among all tested species and a clear trend emerged in which older fishers recall greater past abundance than younger fishers. This provides evidence for the shifting baseline syndrome, a dangerous cognitive condition in which each generation of fishery stakeholders accepts a lower standard of resource abundance as normal.We used a fuzzy expert system to standardize and quantify the anecdotal evidence, and combine it with additional depletion indicators to produce a decadal time series of resource abundance from 1970 to present. Using governmental catch-per-unit-effort data from more recent years we hindcasted to establish an absolute scale with which to interpret the perceived decline. The interview information suggested that some exploited species may have declined by as much as an order of magnitude since 1970.

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Codes of Conduct for Divers and Dive Operators in the Bird's Head Seascape1393742778
Author(s): Bird's Head Seascape
Description: Codes of Conduct for Divers and Dive Operators in the Bird's Head Seascape

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